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Acharya, Amitav. ’Global International Relations (IR) and Regional Worlds: A New Agenda for International Studies
2014, nternational Studies Quarterly, 58(4), pp. 647–659
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Abstract:

The discipline of International Relations (IR) does not reflect the voices, experiences, knowledge claims, and contributions of the vast majority of the societies and states in the world, and often marginalizes those outside the core countries of the West. With IR scholars around the world seeking to find their own voices and reexamining their own traditions, our challenge now is to chart a course toward a truly inclusive discipline, recognizing its multiple and diverse foundations. This article presents the notion of a “Global IR” that transcends the divide between the West and the Rest. The first part of the article outlines six main dimensions of Global IR: commitment to pluralistic universalism, grounding in world history, redefining existing IR theories and methods and building new ones from societies hitherto ignored as sources of IR knowledge, integrating the study of regions and regionalisms into the central concerns of IR, avoiding ethnocentrism and exceptionalism irrespective of source and form, and recognizing a broader conception of agency with material and ideational elements that includes resistance, normative action, and local constructions of global order. It then outlines an agenda for research that supports the Global IR idea. Key element of the agenda includes comparative studies of international systems that look past and beyond the Westphalian form, conceptualizing the nature and characteristics of a post-Western world order that might be termed as a Multiplex World, expanding the study of regionalisms and regional orders beyond Eurocentric models, building synergy between disciplinary and area studies approaches, expanding our investigations into the two-way diffusion of ideas and norms, and investigating the multiple and diverse ways in which civilizations encounter each other, which includes peaceful interactions and mutual learning. The challenge of building a Global IR does not mean a one-size-fits-all approach; rather, it compels us to recognize the diversity that exists in our world, seek common ground, and resolve conflicts.

Comment: This article seeks to explain the concept of ‘global IR’. In order to create a Global IR, it is necessary to accept the plurality of thought which can be found across the Globe. Can be used an in introductory course to IR to demonstrate the prevalence of eurocentrism in the study of International Relations.

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Nkiwane, Tandeka. C. Africa and International Relations: Regional Lessons for a Global Discourse
2001, Political Science Review 22, no. 3: 279–290
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, Contributed by: Eva Brom
Abstract: Case studies, theories, and examples from Africa are exceedingly rare in international relations. Indeed, examples from Africa are, at best, valued for their nuisance potential. This article argues that the study of international relations is limited by this interpretation of Africa, and by a larger ignorance of African contributions. Key debates on the African continent surrounding the central concepts of mainstream international relations, including the state, power, and self-determination, are interrogated with a view to expanding their use in contemporary international relations. The examples of apartheid South Africa, the African debate on political economy and development, and African perspectives on questions raised by the liberal paradigm, are used to illustrate the importance of the region to the more global discourses. In examining the important contribution of African scholarship to debates central to international relations, this article highlights the necessity for engaging African scholars in the broader discourses of international relations.

Comment: The text criticizes the Western way of thinking of liberalism and can be used as a counterpoint to mainstream liberalism making it a good basis for a debate.

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Shilliam, Robbie. The Black Pacific: Anti-Colonial Struggles and Oceanic Connections
2014, The black pacific : anti-colonial struggles and oceanic connections. London: Bloomsbury Publishing (Theory for a global age). doi: 10.5040/9781474218788.
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Publisher’s Note:

Why have the struggles of the African Diaspora so resonated with South Pacific people? How have Maori, Pasifika and Pakeha activists incorporated the ideologies of the African diaspora into their struggle against colonial rule and racism, and their pursuit of social justice?

This book challenges predominant understandings of the historical linkages that make up the (post-)colonial world. The author goes beyond both the domination of the Atlantic viewpoint, and the correctives now being offered by South Pacific and Indian Ocean studies, to look at how the Atlantic ecumene is refracted in and has influenced the Pacific ecumene. The book is empirically rich, using extensive interviews, participation and archival work and focusing on the politics of Black Power and the Rastafari faith. It is also theoretically sophisticated, offering an innovative hermeneutical critique of post-colonial and subaltern studies.

The Black Pacific is essential reading for students and scholars of Politics, International Relations, History and Anthropology interested in anti-colonial struggles, anti-racism and the quests for equality, justice, freedom and self-determination.

Comment: As mentioned in the summary of the book, it is essential reading for students of a number of disciplines who are interested in anti-colonialism and anti-racism, and is thus a useful piece of interdisciplinary literature. The author introduces the concept of a 'Black Pacific', locating his research within the field of Black Atlantic studies, and demonstrates the Pacific as the under-researched counterpart to this field. The book weaves together the connections between Black Power, Rastafarianism and contemporary anti-colonial political projects in the Pacific. It is also a study into global diaspora and the connections between among African, diasporic African peoples and Pacific Islanders. The book further elaborates on models decolonial ways of rethinking international relations.

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Shimizu, Kosuke. The Genealogy of Culturalist International Relations in Japan and Its Implications for Post-Western Discourse
2018, All Azimuth: A Journal of Foreign Policy and Peace, 1(7), pp. 121–136
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, Contributed by: Cassandra Dube
Abstract: This paper aims to introduce a neglected methodology from Japanese international relations (IR) – the culturalist methodology – to Anglophone specialists in IR. This methodology is neglected not only by an Anglophone audience but also by Japanese IR scholars. I argue here that despite this negligence, the culturalist methodology has great potential to contribute to contemporary post-Western international relations theory (IRT) literature by posing radical questions about the ontology of IR, as it questions not only the ontology of Western IR, but also the IR discourses developed in the rest of the world. Consequently, in understanding and imagining the contemporary world, I clarify the importance of perceptions based on what, in Japan, are commonly called ‘international cultural relations’ (kokusai bunka) and ‘regional history’ (chiikishi). I also indicate how our perceptions of the world are limited by the Westphalian principles of state sovereignty and non-intervention among ‘equal’ nations on the basis of state borders. While historical understanding is widely recognised as an important approach to contemporary IR, its scope is limited by its universalised principles.

Comment: This article concerns Japanese Culturalist methodology in international relations. It encourages letting go of western mainstream international relations and examininf a culturalist viewpoint in order to challenge the western view on international relations, intervening in the debate on different IR theories. It is a suitable paper for a course on the history of decolonial IR.

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