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Maphasa, Thulani. Finding Peace in Uncertain Times: South Sudan and the Revitalised Peace Process
2020, South Africa Institute of International Affairs
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, Contributed by: Wout Didden
Abstract: South Sudan’s latest peace deal has been lauded as a milestone in the country’s long road to peace and stability. The Revitalised Agreement for the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (R-ARCSS) outlines power-sharing arrangements between rivals President Salva Kiir and main rebel/opposition leader Riek Machar, and provides a blueprint for a sustainable peace and democratic transition. Despite this welcome development, South Sudan’s revitalised peace process has been marred by delays, uncertainty, divisions and the regionalisation of the conflict. As a result, key issues relating to state boundaries and security arrangements remain unresolved, leaving the primary drivers of the conflict untouched. The civil war in South Sudan – which broke out in 2013 – has cost an estimated 400 000 lives, displaced millions and plunged the nascent country into a state of deprivation. South Sudan and its people must urgently facilitate a return to peace, stability, reconciliation and unity. This paper contextualises the agreement, examines its contents and presents the key enablers of and barriers to the success of the revitalised peace process.

Comment: Overview, summary and discussion of the peacemaking process in South-Sudan. Views from an South-African scholar that is specialised in African actors influencing the peacemaking process. An objective view.

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Mukimbiri, Jean. The Seven Stages of the Rwandan Genocide
2005, Mukimbiri, J. (2005) “The Seven Stages of the Rwandan Genocide,” Journal of International Criminal Justice, 3(4), pp. 823–836.
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Added by: Hannah Savage
Abstract:

Drawing upon a book by J.M. Lecomte on the genocide of the Jews by the Nazi Germans, the author examines the seven stages in the genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda. These stages, which do not necessarily follow one another in time but may overlap, can be classified in the following way: (i) definition of the target group on the basis of some criteria; (ii) registration of the victims; (iii) designation or outward identification of the victims; (iv) restriction and confiscation of goods; (v) exclusion from professions, working activities and means of transportation, among other things; (vi) systematic isolation; (vii) mass extermination.

Comment: This is an easy text discussing the Rwandan Genocide. It is suitable for an introductory-level course on the Rwandan Genocide; genocide studies; episodes of mass violence or ethnic conflict.

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