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Annette Joseph-Gabriel. Reimagining Liberation: How Black Women Transformed Citizenship in the French Empire
2019, University of Illinois Press
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Publisher’s Note: Black women living in the French empire played a key role in the decolonial movements of the mid-twentieth century. Thinkers and activists, these women lived lives of commitment and risk that landed them in war zones and concentration camps and saw them declared enemies of the state. Annette K. Joseph-Gabriel mines published writings and untapped archives to reveal the anticolonialist endeavors of seven women. Though often overlooked today, Suzanne Césaire, Paulette Nardal, Eugénie Éboué-Tell, Jane Vialle, Andrée Blouin, Aoua Kéita, and Eslanda Robeson took part in a forceful transnational movement. Their activism and thought challenged France's imperial system by shaping forms of citizenship that encouraged multiple cultural and racial identities. Expanding the possibilities of belonging beyond national and even Francophone borders, these women imagined new pan-African and pan-Caribbean identities informed by black feminist intellectual frameworks and practices. The visions they articulated also shifted the idea of citizenship itself, replacing a single form of collective identity and political participation with an expansive plurality of forms of belonging.

Comment: Useful for discussing concepts of citizenship and belonging in the decolonial movements of the mid-twentieth century. Prior knowledge of these themes is required for an in-depth discussion of the book. However individual chapters can constitute a good starting point for questions of gender, race, and postcolonialism without prior advanced knowledge.

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Annette Joseph-Gabriel. Suzanne Césaire: Liberation beyond the Great Camouflage
2020, University of Illinois Press
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Abstract: Suzanne Césaire's essays in Tropiques make an important intervention in imagining a new Martinican and ultimately Pan-Caribbean identity during World War II. This study examines Césaire's joint politics and poetics of liberation in the context of dissidence in Martinique. A close reading of her essays alongside previously uncited personal correspondence reveals Haiti to be central to her vision for a Caribbean cultural renaissance after the death and destruction of the war.

Comment: Useful for discussions on belonging, citizenship, and nation-building, and expanding knowledge of Suzanne Césaire. Prior knowledge of key concepts of political history is needed, as well as some knowledge of French decolonization. Can be used to expand knowledge of French education in the former colonies.

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Anyidoho, Nana Akua. Women, Gender and Development in Africa
2020, The Palgrave Handbook of African Women's Studies
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Abstract: Gender denotes the social prescriptions associated with biological sex in regard to roles, behaviour, appearance, cognition, emotions, and so on. Social relations of gender or gender relations encompass all relationships in which gender subjectivities play a role, including those among people, and between people and the institutions, systems, and processes of development. The chapter describes three features of gender relations that are generally consistent across societies – gender ideologies and mythsgendered division of labor; and unequal power relationships – and discusses their implications for development. The chapter further explains the centrality of gender to the development enterprise and discusses various approaches to integrating gender analysis in development processes.

Comment: Overview of three features of gender relations: ideologies and myths, gendered division of labor, unequal power relationships. Explains why subjectivity and social and historical context matter in gender development and interventions with Africa as Global South example.

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Bajpai, Ravi Dutt. Civilizational Perspectives in International Relations and Contemporary China-India Relations
2018, Civilizational Perspectives in International Relations and Contemporary China-India Relations. in "The ‘Clash of Civilizations’ 25 Years On: A Multidisciplinary Appraisal" eds Orsi, D. E-International Relations Publishing
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, Contributed by: Alex Lopez Postma
Abstract: This paper explores the assumptions of civilizational identities purely based on cultural, religious or geographical distinctions and their limitations. It reviews the ‘civilizations’ discourse in IR and discusses the concept of ‘civilization states’ in the context of China and India. It analyzes the key components of civilizational overlaps and exchanges between these two countries and the invocation of their ‘civilization-state’ identity in their contemporary bilateral relations. Rejecting Huntington’s ‘clash of civilizations’ hypothesis in understanding ‘civilization-states’ like China and India, I conclude that it is critical to understand how states perceive their civilizational heritage, which both facilitates and impedes bilateral exchanges and the conduct of international relations.

Comment: Offers a critique of the basic assumptions in IR. Argues that any purposeful analysis of the China-India bilateral relationship and their worldviews is not possible without studying their inter-civilizational links. This text could be used to discuss cultural generalizations and cross cultural links. Suitable for a course on postcolonial IR.

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Boittin, Jennifer Anne. Reverse Exoticism and Masculinity: The Cultural Politics of Race Relations
2010, University of Nebraska Press
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Abstract: The black colony was sculpted from the elements of racial and political solidarity, but Paris was still dominated in the eyes of black people by white men. In consequence, strategies for sociocultural independence could not follow straightforward political lines, in particular with respect to the phenomenon of negrophilia. How did black men respond to their categorization as exotic others when faced with a vogue nègre that threatened to leave them voiceless? How did they reinforce their control not just over the political milieu they had forged in part through racial bonds, but also within the broader cultural sphere of the capital?

Comment: Can be used to discuss the intersection of race and gender in spaces where black men were in power, accompanied by white women. Useful for conversations on the impact of racism on masculinity.

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Celeste Day Moore. Soundscapes of Liberation. African American Music in Postwar France
2021, Duke University Press
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Publisher’s Note: In Soundscapes of Liberation, Celeste Day Moore traces the popularization of African American music in postwar France, where it signaled new forms of power and protest. Moore surveys a wide range of musical genres, soundscapes, and media: the US military's wartime records and radio programs; the French record industry's catalogs of blues, jazz, and R&B recordings; the translations of jazz memoirs; a provincial choir specializing in spirituals; and US State Department-produced radio programs that broadcast jazz and gospel across the French empire. In each of these contexts, individual intermediaries such as educators, producers, writers, and radio deejays imbued African American music with new meaning, value, and political power. Their work resonated among diverse Francophone audiences and transformed the lives and labor of many African American musicians, who found financial and personal success as well as discrimination in France. By showing how the popularity of African American music was intertwined with contemporary structures of racism and imperialism, Moore demonstrates this music's centrality to postwar France and the convergence of decolonization, the expanding globalized economy, the Cold War, and worldwide liberation movements.

Comment: Useful for students of history interested in sound production and its relation to Black Internationalism. Can be used as an introduction into new methods and sources. Prior knowledge of Black Internationalism is recommended but not essential if the focus is on methods.

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Faleye, Olukayode A.. Border Securitisation and Politics of State Policy in Nigeria, 2014–2017
2019, Insight on Africa, 11(1), pp. 78–93.
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Abstract:

This article examines the politics of public policies characterised by increased securitisation of Nigeria’s national boundary from 2014 to 2017. While the regulation appears on paper to discourage transborder crime, capital outflow and sustain a favourable balance of payment, the existing armoury of West African border literature argues otherwise. What is new in the transborder dynamics of West Africa? What informs government’s border policies in Nigeria? In answering these questions, this study provides a template for a reassessment of the gap between borderlands theory and policy in West Africa. The approach is comparative based on the critical analysis of oral interviews, government trade records, newspaper reports and the extant literature. The article provides a platform for rethinking of the nexus between governance and development in West Africa from the securitisation and neo-patrimonial perspectives. It concludes that effective border management in Nigeria is set aback by misguided and dysfunctional elitist-centred regulations that are devoid of the realities on the ground.

Comment: The article shows that the Nigerian border security policy under the years of study, 2014-17, was vacuity of regulations driven by neo-patrimonial politics embedded in clientelism and patronage. The article proposes regionalism based on economic and political functional areas as an antidote to the crisis of the state in West Africa. It can be used in debates on securitisation and militarisation, particularly in the face of terrorism.

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Grovogui, Siba. Postcolonial Criticism: International reality and modes of inquiry
2002, Power, Postcolonialism and International Relations: Reading Race, Gender. Eds Geeta, C. and Nair, S.
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Comment: Chapter found in the book Power, Postcolonialism and International Relations : Reading Race, Gender and Class. The book uses postcolonial theory to examine the implications of race, class, and gender relations for the structuring of world politics. The book includes chapters from several non-Western scholars. Whereas alternative narratives provided by non-Western could shed new light on specific issues in IR, Grovogui criticizes the study of IR itself. He focuses on the lack of Western IR scholars’ openness to postcolonial ideas about IR. The chapter provides a reflection on IR theories and concepts as they are mostly constructed by Western scholars.

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Grovogui, Siba N'Zatioula. A Revolution Nonetheless: The Global South in International Relations
2011, The Global South , Vol. 5, No. 1, 175-190
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, Contributed by: Silvester Beerens
Abstract:

There have been debates on the meaning and appropriateness of the term Global South. To many, no unifying term can apply to regions and countries whose differences extent to the colonial past, cultural traditions, economic trajectories, and administrative or organizational structures. The critics are mistaken. This essay postulates that the term Global South is a symbolic designation with political implications. It is meant to capture a cohesion that emerged when former colonial entities engaged in political projects of decolonization and moved toward the realization of a postcolonial international order. As it stands today, the Global South has its origins in twentieth-century anti-colonialism, the 1955 Bandung Conference, the 1961 NonAligned Movement, and Cuba’s Tricontinentalism, among others.
Although the term Global South gained currency at the end of the Cold War, when the term Third World seemed to fall into disfavor, the change does not signify a renunciation of the ‘Third World.’ It merely signals an adjustment in ideological and political positioning to reflect the new forms of contentions around the legacies of colonialism. Thus, the Global South captures the spirit of Third World engagements in that it continues to invite re-examinations of the intellectual, political, and moral foundations of the international system. The Global South is therefore a multifaceted movement that underscores the need for a postcolonial international community of interest that advances the objectives of equality, freedom, and mutuality in the form of a new ethos of power and subjectivity through
foreign policy, international solidarity, and responsibility to self and others in an international order free of the institutional legacies of colonialism. Finally, as a movement, the Global South has no central structure, no central command, and no appointed spokesperson. It has had multiple custodians, all of them self-selected, in reaction to the deepening and multifaceted violence experienced at the moment by its members.

Comment: This text discusses both the outwards representation of the Global South and the internal identity. It makes clear how the Global South came to be what it is today and how this evolved from the Cold War onwards. Useful for a course on the global Cold War, post WWII IR etc.

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Gülşah Çapa, Zeynep. Decolonising International Relations?
2017, Third World Quarterly, 38(1), pp. 1–15. doi: 10.1080/01436597.2016.1245100.
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Abstract:

How do we ‘decolonise’ the field of International Relations? The aim to decolonise has become a widely discussed and mentioned subject across the social sciences and humanities. The article aims to discuss what 'decolonisation' might mean in the context of the field of International Relations.

Comment: This is a good introductory article for a course on the history of international relations and decolonising international relations history. It provides a good starting point for the debate on decolonising IR and knowledge production in the field of IR. Rather than a "roadmap" on how to go about decolonising the field, the article includes an exploration into the possibilities and potentialities of decolonising, thus it opens up the field to less conventional means of thinking and producing knowledge.

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Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo. Do ‘Africans’ exist? Geneaologies and paradoxes of African identities and the discourse of nativism and xenophobia
2010, “Do 'africans' Exist? Genealogies and Paradoxes of African Identities and the Discourses of Nativism and Xenophobia,” African Identities, 8(3), pp. 281–295.
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Abstract:

One of the paradoxes of the making of African nations and African identities is the recent metamorphoses and mutations of African nationalism from civic principles founded on the slogan of ‘diverse people unite’ to narrow, autochthonous, nativist and xenophobic forms that breed violence. This article seeks to examine key contours in the making of African identities, with a specific focus on historical, cartographic, and hegemonic processes that coalesced towards the creation of a particular kind of nationalism that failed to create a stable African common identity within postcolonial states. Beginning with the making of the African continent itself (as both an idea and reality), the article delves deeper into the pertinent issues in the making of Africans-as-people. At the centre of analysis are the key identity-forming processes such as the Atlantic slave trade, imperialism, colonialism, apartheid, as well as ideologies like Pan-Africanism, Garveyism, Negritude, African Personality, Black Consciousness Movement, and African Renaissance. The central challenge in the struggle of forging stable African identities remains that of how to negotiate and blend together diversities of race, ethnicity, religion, gender, class, region, language, culture, generation as well as how to deal with the phenomenon of degeneration of plural and civic forms of nationalism into nativism, xenophobia and even genocides in recent years. These issues need serious and unsententious consideration at this juncture when African leaders are busy toying with and implementing the mega-project of establishing the United States of Africa. This is taking place within a terrain dominated by bigotry and prejudices on the African continent.

Comment: This article contends with the development of African nationalism, arguing that the various historical processes that combined to produce Africa as an idea and cartographic reality and African identity as a contingent phenomenon are useful in understanding the postcolonial problems facing Africa, including territorialised autochthony, nativism and xenophobia. As such, the author argues that African identities and nationalism are products of complex histories of "domination, resistance, complicity, creolisation, and mimicry – mediated by various vectors of identity such as race, ethnicity, gender, class, region, region and generation". This article is useful for students of modern African politics and history, as a kind of long duree study of the effects of the various phenomena that have affected the development of African identities and African nationalism over the course of history.

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Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo J. The Entrapment of Africa within the Global Colonial Matrices of Power
2013, Journal of Developing Societies, 29(4), pp. 331–353.
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, Contributed by: Rens Collet
Abstract: This article deploys world-systems analysis and the concept of coloniality to examine the experience of the African people within the modern world-system since 1492, a date that figuratively marks the birth of the modern world-system and its shifting international orders. Africa’s experience is contextualized within six international orders: the post-1492 order, the Westphalian order that emerged in 1648, the post-1884–1885 Berlin consensus, the post-1945 United Nations normative order, the Cold War epoch that ended in 1989, the current neoliberal dispensation as well as the post 9/11 anti-terrorism and securitization. While Africans have actively contested Euro–North American hegemony throughout these periods, they have not yet succeeded in breaking the strong global technologies of coloniality that continue to prevent the possibilities of African agency. This is why this article ends with a call for deepening the decolonization and deimperialization of the international order in the twenty-first century.

Comment: Useful for offering alternate perspective to Wallerstein's world system theory. Theorizes not about the detrimental effects of colonialism, put also offers a more constructivist approach to analyzing Africa's current position in the world system.

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Ndlovu-Gatsheni, Sabelo. J. Coloniality of Power in Postcolonial Africa: Myths of Decolonization
2013, Dakar: CODESRIA (Codesria book series).
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Publisher’s Note:

This book interrogates the African postcolonial condition with a focus on the thematics of liberation predicament and the long standing crisis of dependence (epistemological, cultural, economic, and political) created by colonialism and coloniality. A deployment of historical, philosophical, and political knowledge in combination with the equiprimordial concepts of coloniality of power, coloniality of being, and coloniality of knowledge yields a comprehensive understanding of African realities of subalternity.

Comment: This book takes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the 'African postcolonial condition'. The author aims to understand the role of colonialism of power in shaping the complex history of the African postcolonial present. It is an indispensable source for understanding the broad and deeply-seated long-term impacts of colonialism in Africa, demonstrating the inability or stagnation of African development, regarding such things as nation-building, economic development and democratisation, as a result of the continued entrapment of Africa within colonial matrices of power.

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Sackeyfio-Lenoch, Naaborko. The Ghana Trades Union Congress and the Politics of International Labor Alliances, 1957–1971*
2017, Sackeyfio-Lenoch, N. (2017) “The Ghana Trades Union Congress and the Politics of International Labor Alliances, 1957-1971*,” International Review of Social History, 62(2), pp. 191–213. doi: 10.1017/S0020859017000189.
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Abstract:

This article explores the motives of Ghana’s Trades Union Congress in
securing development assistance during the era of decolonization and early independence. African interests and agency in these complex processes of negotiation have not been sufficiently untangled to highlight the decisions that African trade unionists made as they aligned with, and fostered, international networks and alliances to meet particular development goals. By highlighting the perspectives and actions of Ghana’s trade union officials, the article demonstrates what Africans sought to achieve through connections to international trade union organizations. The Ghana case illustrates the ways in which African trade unionists actively engaged in the variable and competing politics and policies of local, regional, and global trade unionism in order to strengthen their union apparatus and meet shifting needs.

Comment: This article shows how a trade union functioned in sub-Saharan Africa’s first country to gain its independence from British colonial rule, and demonstrates how trade union diplomacy emerged as an important element of African national and international politics during the era of decolonisation. Through the lens of African labor interests and the actions of the Ghana Trade Union Congress, the article engages with the confluence of internationalism and decolonisation in post-independence African societies.

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Tuhiwai Smith, Linda. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples
2012, Decolonizing methodologies : research and indigenous peoples. Second edn. London: Zed Books.
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Publisher’s Note:

To the colonized, the term 'research' is conflated with European colonialism; the ways in which academic research has been implicated in the throes of imperialism remains a painful memory.
This essential volume explores intersections of imperialism and research - specifically, the ways in which imperialism is embedded in disciplines of knowledge and tradition as 'regimes of truth.' Concepts such as 'discovery' and 'claiming' are discussed and an argument presented that the decolonization of research methods will help to reclaim control over indigenous ways of knowing and being.
Now in its eagerly awaited third edition, this bestselling book includes a co-written introduction and features contributions from indigenous scholars on the book's continued relevance to current research. It also features a chapter with twenty-five indigenous projects and a collection of poetry.

Comment: This book is essential for any student or scholar wishing to do research concerning indigenous peoples. The author demonstrates how we can best go about doing such research without inflicting further (epistemic) violence on indigenous peoples. The book forces researchers to question what they have done and what they are doing, often with unsettling implications for their work. At the same time, it offers a way forward by advocating for indigenous researchers.

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